Citing specific examples, defend or refute one of the following statements:
1. The Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century CE positively impacted humanity.
2. History was made by civilizations in climate zones where agriculture was possible (e.g., Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys, etc.); marginal peoples from north or south of this zone contributed nothing to human history.
3. African history before the year 1000 CE is unknowable due to the bias of (first) Islamic and (then) Imperial European historians.
Answer the following question:
4. What is the most important non-human force in the making of history: trade, disease, philosophy, climate, religion, or something else? Why? (Pick one to defend, but make sure to discuss at least three).
The format for each exam question will begin with the phrase: “Defend or Refute the Following Statement.”
No word requirement