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  1. Folk Psychology

The ability to understand and predict other individuals’ mental activity and behavior without asking them. It is a prescience capacity that human has.

  1. Syntax

A set of rules of a language to create well-formed sentences. It is the grammar/structure of a language.

  1. Semantics

It relates to the meaning of a sentence. Semantically valid means the sentence is sensible.

  1. Epiphenomenalism

A theory that derived from property dualism. Property dualism claims that mind and body are different properties. Epiphenomenalism is the view that mind and body happen at the same time, but not causing each other. Mind emerges from the physical, but doesn’t act upon it. Our decision is just an illusion and accident.

  1. Cartesian Dualism

Substance dualism explains that mind and body are similar in activity, but different in substance. Mind couldn’t be studied, but has interaction with physical world. Descartes gives good argument to “interaction”. He thinks that we cannot make sense of it, so the mind is impossible to study.

  1. Dispositional Representations

It is potential patterns of neural activity relates to the image we have in our mind. When we see a familiar image, the same pattern of neural firings are reproduced during perception.

  1. Propositional Attitudes

There are many beliefs that always stored in our mind, but most of them need to be triggered by particular events in order to be aware of. For example, we are not realizing that ice-cream is cold until we see it.

  1. Anosognosia

A mental disorder that has the background feeling broken. Background feeling helps the body reports to current state. It is our image of the body landscape when it is not shaken by emotion. People with anosognosia cannot be aware of their actual body disability because they are not able to get current information updated.

  1. Semantic Solipsism

A theory under the inner ostension. A term is defined based on personal feelings, so a person can never know what a same term means to others if he/she defines it in his/her own way.

  1. Inner Ostension

A way to define the things that cannot be described explicitly but only by experience. For example, we can define that the thing I felt is a pain.

  1. Functionalism

Behaviorists believes that the input of information leads to the output behavior. Functionalists believe that there are other mental states between inputs and outputs. For example, when we get the information of threat, we want to have the output of avoiding it, but there is other mental state called “avoiding dislike” between them.

  1. Intentionality

A theory under the network theory of meaning, which describes how words are defined in relation to other words. Intentionality is “aboutness”. All of our concepts are in relation to other concepts. For example, the concept that we believe fire is hot is about fire.

  1. Secondary Emotion

Secondary emotion is the primary emotion with the consideration of situation. It is the ability to connect categories of objects and situations. For example, we ought to feel regret when we make mistakes, so that we try to avoid making that again.

  1. Embodied Concept

The mind is embodied because the neural structure is part of the sensorimotor system of our brains, so the conceptual inference is actually sensorimotor inference.

  1. Active Externalism

Minds extends into the world and the environment is part of our mind. Interacting to the environment is necessary for us to form our beliefs.

Section 2

1. Jackson disagrees on physicalism while Dennett agrees on it. In Frank Jackson’s thought experiment, Mary learns everything about color in a black and white room. Jackson thinks that when she is released from the room, she will learn something new, which he thinks is the qualia. The Robo-Mary from Dennett has black-white camera, but got colored software and hardware. She is able to see color but never seen. However, she is able to see other robot’s states when it’s looking at color and copy the states, so she will not learn anything new when she actually sees color. Dennett wants to demonstrate that we can learn everything from physical information.

2. Frank Jackson’s Knowledge Argument argues that knowing physical knowledge doesn’t mean knowing qualia and the mind. Mary knows all the physical information about color but she still learns qualia when she is released from the black-white room. It means physicalism is false because we cannot know the world only through physical information.

3. Phlogiston is something that people used to think left after firing. It is found that there is no such thing like that. That is used as a metaphor of folk psychology. It helps the eliminative materialism to claim that the folk psychology is radically misleading. We cannot assume what others are thinking. Neuron science is the only way to explain people’s psychology. For example, instead of saying “she is angry”, we should say that “her frontal lobe’s neuron system is firing.”

4. The source-path-goal schema is one of the spatial-relations concepts, which states that objects are related to each other in space. The source-path-goal schema tells us a basic spatial logic. There is a source as a starting point, a goal, and a trajectory moving on the path between the starting point and the goal. Entering a college is the source and graduating is the goal. Everyday we spend in college is the path.

5. The Problem of Compositionality is a problem of prototype theory. Prototype theory requires only a sufficient number of features that a thing tend to have when we define a concept. Compositionality is a feature of language. We can still comprehend and produce new language that we have never heard before by combining the words we learned. For example, we can combine the word “pet” and “fish” into pet-fish and we still understand it. But it’s a problem of prototype theory because the features of goldfish are not the features of pet plus the features of fish. There are features of goldfish doesn’t fit in “pet” or “fish”. However, we still categorize goldfish as a pet-fish. It is contradict with the prototype theory.

6. Basic level categories include the objects that we learned very first and generally say the most often. Superordinate level categories include all the attributes of basic level categories and subordinate level categories only include part of the attributes of basic level categories. For example, a table is a basic level object, furniture is a superordinate level object and kitchen table is a subordinate level object.

Section 3-2

Lackoff and Johnson think that human’s ability to reason is depend on bodily capacities such as perception and movement. They are opposed to faculty psychology that reasoning and rationality can be isolated form body. They don’t think they can be separated and they claim that reason is inextricably tied to our bodies and our brains. Neural categorization holds that categorization is a consequence of how we are embodied and our neuron is doing a lot of work for us when categorizing. There are three kind of concepts: color concepts, basic-level concepts, and spatial-relations concepts. We can conclude form color concepts that the world is real only through our body and brain. For example, dog see different redness from we do. So the world is known through interaction with our body. Basic-level concepts tell us the basic categorization we make. For example, when we describe what we are sitting on, we are more likely to say chair rather than a kitchen chair or a furniture. Spatial-relations concepts demonstrate that objects are related to each other in space such as the notion of front and behind, which are what make sense of space for us.

Descartes splits the mind from brain and body and says that “I think therefore I am.” While Damasio claims that “I am therefore I think.” He thinks thinking is caused by the structures an operations of being. He concludes Descartes’ error is specifically “the separation of the most refined operations of mind form the structure and operation of a biological organism. Damasio is a materialism and likes to focus on neurobiology. He agrees that mind is mostly produced by neural activations. He also thinks that Descartes’ thinking deeply harms the idea of medicine because we messed up about the mind-body relationship.

Lackoff and Johnson and Damasio all believe that much of conceptual inference is actually sensorimotor inference, which means that our mind activities are no more than neural activations in brains. They all agree on that body shapes the way we think about the world. What is different is the method they are using to understand the mind. Lackoff and Johnson use the cognitive/computational approach (top-down), which focus more on how the mind works and Damasio uses the methodological materialism (bottom up), which first looks at physical structures and functions such us nervous system to understand mind.

Extra Credit

The extended mind holds that the mind is not all in the brain. For example, when we trying to remember things, we do not only rely on particular neural networks, but also rely on notebook. The notebook is an extended mind. Coupling/constitution fallacy holds that the extended mind relationship is wrong in that neurons helping produce the memory is part of our biological system and yet you cannot say a notebook is not part of our body.

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