Which of the following findings raises doubt about Chomsky’s assumption that grammatical knowledge is innately determined?
a. Adults and adolescents have more difficulty acquiring a second language than young children
b. Complete mastery of some grammatical forms is not achieved until well into middle childhood.
c. Chimpanzees learn to communicate through sign language and symbols.
d. As children acquire language, the brain becomes increasingly specialized for language processing
According to Erikson, children learn how to cooperate with others during the __________ stage.
a. basic trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. initiative versus guilt
d. industry versus inferiority
By the end of the first year, babies become increasingly skilled at
a. establishing an internal working model.
b. joint attention
c. social smiling.
d. labeling their feelings.
Societal order responsibilities that were once a function of the family are now assumed by
b. political and legal institutions.
c. farms and stores
1. Valerie is a college student studying to become a speech/language pathologist. In one of her classes, she is learning about the rules that govern the structure and sequencing of speech sounds. Valerie is studying
In contrast to Freud, Erikson:
a. viewed children as taking a more active role in their own development
b. recognized the lifespan nature of development
c. minimized the role of culture in individual development
d. focused on the impact of early experiences on later behavior.
Mr. Garcia is often impatient and uses harsh discipline with his 4-year-old son, Liam. Liam, in turn, is aggressive and rebellious. This example illustrates a(n) __________ influence on development.
One important criticism of behaviorism is that it
a. cannot be effectively applied to infants or to small children
b. underestimates children’s contributions to their own development
c. only works in the laboratory, not in children’s everyday lives.
d. puts too much emphasis on children’s genetic traits.
In Piaget’s concrete operational stage, children
a. consider all possible outcomes in a scientific problem.
b. develop the capacity for abstract thinking.
c. reason with symbols that do not refer to real-world objects.
d. transform cognition into logical reasoning.
Traditional behaviorists like Watson concluded that __________ is the supreme force in development.
d. make-believe play
All U.S. states require that each newborn be given a blood test for
a. Tay-Sachs disease
d. cystic fibrosis.
Blond hair can result only from having
a. two dominant alleles
b. two recessive alleles
c. a dominant dark hair allele and a recessive blond hair allele
d. a dominant blond hair allele and a recessive dark hair allele.
Noam Chomsky reasoned that
a. in early childhood, rewards and punishments support language development
b. young children are unable to assume much responsibility for their own language learning.
c. the rules for sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to cognitively sophisticated young children.
d. language, like any other behavior, is acquired through imitation and operant conditioning.
The most frequent expression of fear is
a. stranger anxiety.
b. the fear of falling
c. the fear of unfamiliar objects and toys.
d. separation anxiety.
The information-processing approach views the mind as:
a. a system for manipulating symbols.
b. a socially constructed structure
c. the result of stimulus-response associations
d. a mechanism of genetically programmed behaviors.
During the oral psychosexual stage, if oral needs are not met appropriately, an individual may develop such habits as:
a. extreme messiness and disorder
b. hostility toward the same-sex parent
c. sexual promiscuity
d. fingernail biting and overeating.
Charles Darwin is considered the forefather of scientific child study because:
a. he constructed the first theory of human development.
b. he discovered that human prenatal growth differs markedly from that of other species.
c. his theory prompted researchers to make careful observations of all aspects of children’s behavior
d. he was the first to conduct experiments on children.
According to Rousseau’s view of childhood, children:
a. are naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
b. follow the same general plan as the evolution of the species
c. are born as blank slates to be filled by adult instruction
d. must learn to redirect their naturally evil tendencies into socially acceptable behaviors.
Dr. Arbus is interested in learning how children come to understand their multifaceted world. In her research, she asks questions like: When do infants discover that they are separate beings, distinct from other people and objects? Dr. Arbus is studying
a. social cognition
b. the inner self.
d. personality development.
Brothers, Patrick and Michael, do not look very much alike. Patrick has green eyes and blond, curly hair like his mother. Michael has blue eyes and dark brown, straight hair like his father. These directly observable characteristics are
In a study of well-educated mothers, those who had recently given birth to their second child reported
a. less stress than after they had their first child.
b. just as much stress as first-time mothers.
c. more stress than after they had their first child.
d. an increase of postpartum depression.
Children typically say their first word at about _____ months and have mastered a large vocabulary and most grammatical constructions by _____ years.
a. 6; 2 to 3
b. 9; 3 to 4
c. 12; 4 to 5
d. 18; 5 to 6
Five-year-old Jamari observes his friend Liam fall while ice skating. Instead of crying, Liam starts to laugh, and Jamari imagines what Liam’s thoughts and feelings might be. Jamari is using __________ to understand Liam’s actions.
b. social comparison
c. belief–desire theory of mind
d. perspective taking
As Toshio approaches any situation, he rapidly appraises its personal significance, which prepares him for action. What does Toshio’s appraisal represent?
Some theorists believe that children who are high in verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability will:
a. perform poorly on IQ tests in adolescence
b. engage in excessive make-believe play during early childhood.
c. be highly competitive in athletics during adolescence.
d. remain so at later ages.
Which of the following statements is true about emotions?
a. Emotions are learned behaviors.
b. Young children are unable to experience more than one emotion at a time.
c. Authoritative parents tend to discourage emotional expression in their children
d. Emotional reactions can lead to learning that is essential for survival.
__________ are sex cells that contain __________ chromosomes each.
a. Gametes; 23
b. Gametes; 23 pairs of
c. Zygotes; 46
d. Autosomes; 23 pairs of
Language areas in the cerebral cortex
a. are found exclusively in the left hemisphere
b. are fully are fully lateralized at birth lateralized at birth
c. develop as children acquire language
d. are not fully functional until adulthood.
The most consistent asset of resilient children is:
a. a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.
b. high academic performance in elementary school.
c. a disorganized home environment.
d. athletic competence
Why is the field of child development considered interdisciplinary?
a. Scientific curiosity is the prevailing factor that led to the study of children.
b. The beginning of public education led to a demand for knowledge about what to teach children.
c. Contributions from researchers and professionals in different fields help solve everyday problems concerning children.
d. Research was stimulated by social pressure to better children’s lives.
In the United States
a. all teenage mothers are guaranteed welfare benefits
b. there is no time limit for a family on welfare.
c. welfare recipients must engage in volunteer work while acquiring work skills.
d. a state can prevent welfare payments from increasing if recipients have more children
Vygotsky believed that __________ are necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture.
a. cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society
b. active, independent role-playing efforts
c. a series of nested environmental structures
d. the environmental influences that occur during a sensitive period
Temper tantrums tend to occur because toddlers
a. frequently compete with siblings for desired toys
b. are easily overwhelmed and often have a difficult temperament.
c. recall that crying as an infant got them immediate adult attention.
d. cannot control the intense anger that often arises when an adult rejects their demands.
What period of human development brings the most rapid time of change?
a. the prenatal period
b. infancy and toddlerhood
c. early childhood
d. middle childhood
When her newborn brother cried, two-year-old Melly watched her mother’s reactions. On a later occasion when her brother cried, Melly patted him and spoke softly to him. This is an example of
a. joint attention
c. social referencing.
d. emotional self-regulation.
Infants of depressed mothers
a. often turn to their fathers for caretaking needs
b. have abnormally low cortisol levels.
c. quickly learn to sooth themselves
d. are less attentive to their surroundings.
Which of the following descriptions defines the family in its most common form?
a. a group of people, related by blood, who divide responsibilities, such as child rearing, food provision, and protection
b. a commitment between two adults who pledge faithfulness to each other
c. a mother giving birth to her children and providing food and shelter until the age of 18
d. an enduring commitment between a man and woman who feed, shelter, and nurture their children until they reach maturity
Three-year-old Giselle says, “I swimmed like a fish, Mommy!” Giselle’s addition of the -ed ending, although incorrect, shows her growing awareness of
Professor Chan believes that language is a unique human accomplishment that children acquire naturally due to the structure of the brain.Professor Chan supports the __________ perspective of language development.
According to social learning theory, as children grow older
a. they become more selective in what they imitate.
b. operant conditioning is more effective than classical conditioning in influencing behavior
c. they depend more on their parents than on their friends for reinforcement
d. they are less likely to act to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst.
The common goal of investigators who study child development is to
a. join the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and neuroscience
b. predict academic success during adolescence.
c. analyze human behavior and its effects on family relationships.
d. describe and identify those factors that influence young people during the first two decades of life.
Marcus was abused by his parents during his preschool years. Now in elementary school and living with a foster family, Marcus’s school counselor believes those early negative events can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The counselor is emphasizing the role of __________ in development.
The development of __________ memory is linked with the emergence of the __________ self
a. recognition; social
b. working; enduring
c. semantic; categorical
d. autobiographical; remembered
Each person is made up of trillions of __________ and 23 __________.
a. genes; billion cells
b. cells; matching pairs of chromosomes
c. matching pairs of chromosomes; genes
d. cells; chromosomes
According to Freud, the __________ works to reconcile the demands of the __________ and the __________.
a. id; ego; superego
b. superego; id; ego
c. ego; id; superego
d. id; conscience; subconscience
Pavlov successfully taught dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by using:
a. operant conditioning
b. behavior modification
c. classical conditioning
d. observational learning.
Cross-cultural research shows that German and Greek caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style common in cultures that value independence, while Nso caregivers use a(n) __________ parenting style typical in cultures that value interdependence.
a. authoritarian; permissive
b. permissive; uninvolved
c. distal; proximal
d. proximal; distal
According to Bandura’s social learning theory, children learn primarily through
b. Classical Conditioning
c. Behavior Modification
d. Operant Conditioning
Compared with other species, human children
a. develop faster.
b. are more attached to their family
c. are more independent.
d. develop slowly.
In the innermost level of the environment, Bronfenbrenner emphasized that:
a. reinforcement, punishment, and modeled behaviors are the most important environmental influences.
b. the same environmental influences affect children in uniform ways.
c. children acquire culturally valued practices from interactions with adults.
d. when reciprocal interactions occur often over time, they have an enduring impact on development.