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Assignment: Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Note: This Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 3. Epidemiologic surveillance is used in public and global health. For this Assignment, begin by locating a recent article about an outbreak of an infectious or communicable disease. The article can come from a newspaper or other source but must be supported with scholarly literature. For this Assignment, review the following: AWE Checklist (Level 4000) Walden paper template (no abstract or running head required) The Week 3 Assignment Rubric for additional instruction and guidance By Day 7 of Week 3 Write a 3- to 4-page paper that includes the following: A summary of the article, including the title and author The relationship among causal agents, susceptible persons, and environmental factors (epidemiological triangle) The role of the nurse in addressing the outbreak Possible health promotion/health protection strategies that could have been implemented by nurses to mitigate the outbreak
OF THE NURSE IN PUBLIC AND GLOBAL HEALTH
Epidemiology of infectious disease is affecting the human societies worldwide and on capacity to significantly prevent, control and treat this kind of disease. One of the example diseases that infect people very seriously is Tuberculosis. This kind of disease that infects most people across the world and it is theoretically has been organized more than 150 years ago. According to the world organization for disease control CDC, they state that one third of the world is being affected by this epidemic disease. The tuberculosis is one of the dangerous diseases and it is caused by bacteria known as mycobacterium TB. The tuberculosis of the lung is one of the common diseases in the region and it can be affected in the brain, spine and the kidney. This type of disease is fatal and can lead to dead if not diagnosed properly. It can spread from one person to another through air from coughing. The disease can spread to be dangerous to human who are vulnerable with weak immune system such as HIV/AIDS is the person is exposed to an infected person. Tuberculosis is the disease which can be in a dynamic shape and in addition in an inert state and just infectious when it is a dynamic state. On the off chance that the individual’s safe framework have been traded off or have powerless invulnerable framework created symptomatic TB. In dormant state likewise called inactive state, it isn’t transmitted from one individual to another. There are increment number individuals world wild has who have inactive TB. A portion of the indications of TB in a tainted individual is blood in sputum, waiting hack that keeps going for more than 1 month, chest torment, fever, weight reduction and so forth. Like if the kidney has been influenced then there might be blood in the pee stream. On the off chance that spinal section has been assaulted, at that point, there would be back agony included. There are different side effects, for example, accidental weight reduction, weakness, and fever, yet these could likewise be related with other therapeutic condition too (Mayo center, 2016). The determination can be produced using chest X-ray and be gathering society of certain body liquid make the acclimate of dynamic TB. Knowing M. tuberculosis in sputum, discharge or tissue makes an unequivocal diagnosis of TB. Inactive TB can be referred to by utilizing skin test known as TST or blood test, for example, quantitative interferon. This test is finished utilizing idle tuberculosis microbes that are infused seriously which adjust by framing indurations under the skin. There are numerous entanglement individuals contaminated with TB can have which might be meningitis, the issue in liver, kidney, heart issue, spinal or joint harm. Lung might be for all time harm if the treatment did not begin in time. Multidrug – protection tuberculosis (MDR-TB) can happen when the solution utilized for treatment of TB isn’t utilized by suggestion and microbes end up noticeably impervious to medicine. The primary driver for MDR-TB is utilizing the TB medicate in the erroneous ways. (CDC, 2016). Active TB treatment comprises numerous anti-microbial being given all the while for no less than a half year to cure the illness. The regimen is four anti-microbial for the initial two months and lessening to two anti-toxins for most recent two months. A large portion of anti-microbial of the decision is given in pill frame and decision is recorded in bland shape as, ethambutol, Isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampin, cycloserine, ethionamide levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and streptomycin. (CDC, 2012). Once in a while steroids are utilized if irritation is available. Individuals with traded off insusceptible framework, for example, HIV are suggested with uncommon treatment, additionally people resistant with TB tranquilize, youngsters with dynamic TB, and pregnant ladies with dynamic TB. (CDC, 2012). Demographic of Interest In 2014 there were 9.6 million individuals all-inclusive that wind up plainly tainted with TB, of which 1.5 million finished in death. In the United States, there are the 2.96% cases for every 100,000 individuals. The earlier year in 2013 there were 555 TB related passing which was increment from 2012 that had 510 TB related demise. Overall statically, there has been a diminishing every year from 1992, which was the pinnacle year for TB. Ethnically American Indians experience the ill effects of TB cases 5 for every 100,000 whereas Asian and Native Hawaiians exponentially increment to 17.8 and 16.9 TB case for every 100,000 deferentially. Whites are the slightest influenced with 0.6 cases for every 100,000. (CDC, 2015). Determinants of Health and development of Tuberculosis Destitution is capable determinants of Tuberculosis (WHO, 2016). Determinants of wellbeing unquestionably assume a part in the probability of treating TB. Affects people who are living and has an occupation on the very crowded range and with poor ventilation. Likewise under sustenance is a chance factor for the transmission of TB. (Social determinants, 2016). Individual living in poor lodging, overpopulated groups or working in the areas where there is little ventilation the possibility of happening or transmission of TB are expanded. Also, people who are in close contact with person infected TB have higher shot of getting this sickness, which may incorporate; Health mind Worker: – Doctor, pathologist, microbiologist, nursing staff, lab staffed There are many hazards calculates that assistance the transmission of tuberculosis contaminated from the source to a contact which can be immune compromised individuals like HIV, individuals working in dusty and Smokey region, individuals with a history of smoking for a long time and so forth. Tuberculosis Epidemiological Triangle The Epidemiology Triangle is demonstrated that has created by the researcher to help in examining wellbeing intricacy. It helps students in understanding irresistible malady their causes, indications and how they are transmitted. This triangle has three corners, which are called vertices, which are marked Agent, Host, and Environment. An operators or microorganism cause an illness, the host is the living being that harbors the infection and the earth comprises of outside factor which causes and permit transmission of the malady. In tuberculosis, the study of disease transmission triangle has three basic components; Agents—the agent that causes a disease is a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Host—this is the ‘who’ so humans are the host. Environmental factor—this is ‘where’. That cause and allow its transmission alludes to overcrowding, poor ventilation, malnutrition and poverty. The role of the Community Health Nurse The medical attendant assumes fundamental part in destitution treatment and plays out the subsequent care to the tainted individual with tuberculosis. The part of the group wellbeing medical caretaker is to work all things considered with social insurance suppliers and the group. The medical caretaker can gather information from different sources like contaminated individual himself. This gathered information can be utilized as a part of correlation between other tainted patients to screen inclines in the infection procedure. In spite of the fact that the immunization isn’t utilized as a part of USA yet different nations utilizes antibody called BCG (BacilliChalmetteGuerin) for the most part for babies and youngsters (Mayo Clinic, 2015) It is critical that attendant must be educated about appropriate treatment and ensuring that those being treated with medicine do catch up care and taking them legitimately and completely finishing the treatment. The medical caretaker should likewise knee about appropriate PPE to utilize when watching over tainted patient. The basic part of group wellbeing medical attendant as entire is to string the activity, planning with different individuals and association and assessing the control and avoiding technique for TB contaminated cases. (CDC, 2012). This requires state and neighborhood wellbeing offices give oversight on the accompanying basic components; Planning and strategy making Contact examination Clinical and indicative administration Training and training Surveillance information and data administration and Monitoring and assessment. (CDC, 2012) National organization addressing tuberculosis A standout amongst the most known national organizations that address TB is the Center for Disease and Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. (DTBE). They endeavor to control TB internationally. As of now the CDC has venture set up to both bring issues to light and teach about TB. Some of these undertaking incorporates creating persistent instruction that is socially fitting offering TB data on site in Spanish, attempting to teach general society in African American people group and working other association to help battle TB in the US and also different nations. (CDC, 2015). World Health Organization and Tuberculosis World Health Organization has announced that to put the finish of TB illness worldwide by the year 2030. The distinctive type of irresistible and transmittable malady in creating nations has been seeing by the WHO. This is on the grounds that there are numerous challenges that have been expanded in both creating and immature nations. WHO has in this manner built up different plans for activity, which offers different outlines of target, activity and potential factor that could be placed responsible for transmittable illness disease like TB? (WHO, 2016) It has encouraged legitimate preparing for the wellbeing specialist and the groups in appropriate treatment of transferable and irresistible sickness. Conclusion Roughly 33% of the total populace are said to be tainted with TB and more than 9 million new instances of TB built up each year. The more number of individuals contaminated with TB is because of an ever increasing number of individuals tainted with HIV every year, as we definitely know HIV is one of most serious hazard for TB. It is assessed that individuals with HIV contamination are the first and the TB is the second reason for death from an irresistible infection. The study of disease transmission of the TB is much similar to that of chain in the cycle. If we evacuate one thing of the chain, then there will be never again running of cycle. That relationship can remain constant in freeing TB from the world through association like World Health Organization. It will take all substances from government, social insurance and individual practice to at long last wipe out TB from the world unequivocally.
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